Machine Learning

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These are nominal variables which have logical order. Examples include team ranks in cricket or football, merit list of students appearing for grade students.
These are variables which can take can any value on the measurement scale example includes pitch of voice which can take any possible value within the range.
These are variables which can take fixed values in range. For example, number of customers in a bank.
Yes, based upon the motive of study, it is possible to convert discrete values to continuous and vice versa, for example, Level of water in the tank can take any value in the range and as such a continuous variable.
But we can approximate the same to three different levels like empty, full, or half empty and this now becomes discrete in nature.
These are variables which are grouped on interval. Example is age can be divided in range like 10-20, 20-30 and so on and, person with particular age would be placed in one of the above groups. When intervals are equal, they represent difference in equal property being measured.